Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor. Polanski was born in Paris, and his Polish-Jewish parents moved the family back to Poland in 1937, when he was four. Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany to start World War II two years later in September 1939 and Polanski spent the next six years of his childhood mostly on his own, trying to survive the ongoing Holocaust.Polanski's first feature-length film, Knife in the Water (1962), was made in Poland and was nominated for a United States Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. He has since received five more Oscar nominations, along with two BAFTAs, four Césars, a Golden Globe Award and the Palme d'Or of the Cannes Film Festival in France. In the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion (1965). In 1968 he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemary's Baby (1968).A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, and four friends were brutally murdered by members of the Manson Family. Following her death, Polanski returned to Europe and eventually continued directing. He made Macbeth (1971) in England and back in Hollywood, Chinatown (1974), which was nominated for eleven Academy Awards.In 1977, Polanski was arrested and charged with raping a 13-year-old girl named Samantha Geimer. He subsequently pled guilty to the charge of statutory rape. He was released from prison after serving 42 days, and as part of an apparent plea bargain, was to be put on probation. When he learned that the judge changed his mind and planned to reject the plea bargain, he fled to Paris before sentencing.In Europe, Polanski continued to make films, including Tess (1979), starring aspiring actress, Nastassja Kinski. It won France's César Awards for Best Picture and Best Director, and received three Oscars. He later produced and directed The Pianist (2002), starring Adrien Brody, in a World War II true story drama about a Jewish-Polish musician. The film won three Academy Awards including Best Director, along with numerous international awards. He also directed Oliver Twist (2005), a story which parallels his own life as a "young boy attempting to triumph over adversity". He was awarded Best Director for The Ghost Writer (2010) at the 23rd European Film Awards Having made films in Poland, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States, he is considered one of the few international filmmakers.

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